Course website: https://courses.pnhs.purdue.edu/hsci312/ (password protected)
Instructor:
Format: Lecture
Credits: 3.0
Description
Introduce fundamental principles and concepts related to the interactions of ionizing radiation with physical and biological systems. The course emphasizes critical thinking and problem solving skills over rote memorization. Students are expected to become proficient at applying concepts and problem solving skills to selected areas in the radiation sciences, including radiation protection, radiation shielding, radiodating of geological samples, and radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer.
Prerequisites:
MA 224 (Introductory Analysis II), PHYS 221 (General Physics). Authorized equivalent courses or consent of instructor may be used in satisfying course pre and corequisites.
Course Objectives:
Upon completion of this course, the students should:
 Understand the major types of ionizing radiation, how these particles interact in physical and biological systems, and the quantities and units used to characterize the intensity of a radiation field.
 Understand fundamental concepts used throughout the radiological sciences, such as absorbed dose, linear energy transfer (LET), particle range and stopping power, fluence, fluence rate, radioactive decay, quality factor and the effective dose equivalent.
 Understand radiation protection principles (e.g., time, distance and shielding) and key concepts related to radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer.
 Be able to apply mathematical models and concepts from probability theory to gain additional insight into the behavior of ionizing radiation in physical and biological systems.
Textbook (required):
 J.K. Shultis and R.E. Faw, Fundamentals of Nuclear Science and Engineering, ISBN 0824708342, Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, 2002.
Required Reading:
 JE Turner. Interaction of ionizing radiation with matter. Health Phys. 86(3):22852 (2004).
 RJ Preston. Radiation biology: concepts for radiation protection. Health Phys. 87(1):314 (2004).
 DT Goodhead. Initial events in the cellular effects of ionizing radiations: clustered damage in DNA. Int J Radiat Biol. 65(1):717 (1994).
Selected Websites:
Topics covered in the course:
 Units and Fundamental Concepts in Radiological Science
 Modern Units
 Special Nuclear Units
 Physical Constants
 The Atom
 Atomic and Nuclear Nomenclature
 Atomic and Molecular Weights
 Avogadro's Number
 Mass of an Atom
 Atomic Number Density
 Size of an Atom
 Atomic and Isotopic Abundances
 Nuclear Dimensions
 Chart of the Nuclides
 Introduction to Modern Physics
 The Special Theory of Relativity
 Principle of Relativity
 Time Dilation
 Length Contraction
 Mass Increase
 Results of the Special Theory of Relativity
 Radiation as Waves and Particles
 The Photoelectric Effect
 Compton Scattering
 Electromagnetic Radiation: WaveParticle Duality
 Electron Scattering
 Uncertainty Principle
 Atomic and Nuclear Models
 Development of the Modern Atom Model
 Discovery of Radioactivity
 Thomson's Atomic Model: The Plum Pudding Model
 The Rutherford Atomic Model
 The Bohr Atomic Model
 Models of the Nucleus
 Fundamental Properties of the Nucleus
 Stability of Nuclei
 The Liquid Drop Model of the Nucleus
 The Nuclear Shell Model
 Nuclear Energetics (Binding Energy)
 Nuclear and Atomic Masses
 Binding Energy of the Nucleus
 Average Nuclear Binding Energies
 Nucleon Separation Energy
 Nuclear Reactions
 QValue for a Reaction
 Radioactive Decay Reactions
 Conservation of Charge and the Calculation of QValues
 Radioactivity
 Types of Radioactive Decay
 Energetics of Radioactive Decay
 Gamma Decay
 AlphaParticle Decay
 BetaParticle Decay
 Positron Decay
 Electron Capture
 Neutron Decay
 Proton Decay
 Internal Conversion
 EnergyLevel Diagrams
 Characteristics of Radioactive Decay
 The Decay Constant
 Exponential Decay
 The HalfLife
 Decay Probability for a Finite Time Interval
 Mean Lifetime
 Activity
 Decay with Production
 Three Component Decay Chains
 General Decay Chain
 Naturally Occurring Radionuclides
 Cosmogenic Radionuclides
 Singly Occurring Primordial Radionuclides
 Decay Series of Primordial Origin
 Secular Equilibrium
 Radiodating
 Radiation Interactions with Matter
 Attenuation of Neutral Particle Beams
 The Linear Interaction Coefficient
 Attenuation of Uncollided Radiation
 Average Travel Distance Before an Interaction
 HalfThickness
 Scattered Radiation
 Microscopic Cross Sections
 Calculation of Radiation Interaction Rates
 Flux Density
 ReactionRate Density
 Generalization to Energy and TimeDependent Situations
 Radiation Fluence
 Uncollided Flux Density from an Isotropic Point Source
 Photon Interactions
 Photoelectric Effect
 Compton Scattering
 Pair Production
 Photon Attenuation Coefficients
 Neutron Interactions
 Classification of Types of Interactions
 Fission Cross Sections
 Attenuation of Charged Particles
 Interaction Mechanisms
 Particle Range
 Stopping Power
 Estimating ChargedParticle Ranges
 Radiation Doses and Hazard Assessment
 Historical Roots
 Energy Imparted to the Medium
 Absorbed Dose
 Kerma
 Exposure
 Microdosimetry
 Relative Biological Effectiveness
 Dose Equivalent
 Quality Factor
 Effective Dose Equivalent
 Effective Dose
 Introduction to Radiation Biology
 Nature of the Damage Caused by Ionizing Radiation
 Cellular Responses to Ionizing Radiation
 Four R's of Radiation Biology (repair, repopulation, reoxygenation, redistribution)
 Biological basis for radiation therapy
 Health Effects of Ionizing Radiation
 Deterministic Effects in Organs and Tissues
 Hereditary Effects
 Classification of Genetic Effects
 Cancer Risks from Radiation Exposures
 Radiation Protection Standards
 Time, distance, shielding, ALARA.
Other Resources (not required):
